Vladimir Roussalov. The International Handbook of Psychology. Editor: Kurt Pawlik & Mark R Rosenzweig. Sage Publications. 2000.
In Russia psychological assessment was always a problem of minor importance. Russian psychologists tried first of all to solve methodological and theoretical problems concerning the social/societal nature of the mind and thinking, the origin of intelligence, the structure of personality, etc. That is why the concepts discussed were often speculative, and it was very difficult to operationalize and assess, for example, such concepts as ‘subject,’ ‘activity,’ ‘interiorization,’ ‘self-control,’ etc. The qualitative methods (observation, talk, etc.) prevailed. The number of original tests, constructed according to psychometric procedures, is limited. The attitude to foreign tests was and still is either negative or very simplified. Often the adaptation is reduced to the translation of method. At best the adaptation includes the construction of normative distributions of the test scores. As a rule, there is no theoretical analysis of the concepts on which the test is based.
The data on the reliability and validity obtained in the country where the test was originated tend to be taken as true ones also for the Russian population. Only in the 1980s did the theoretical and practical problems of adaptation of foreign tests become an issue for discussion among Russian psychologists. Just recently specialized organizations were founded to deal with problems of psychological testing. For example, the firm Imaton (Saint-Petersburg) was founded in 1990 by the initiative of the Institute of Psychology of the Russian Academy of Sciences on the basis of the Russian Gosstandard. The main tasks of the firm are development of the original tests and the adaptation of well-known foreign tests.
All the tests (cognitive or personality) now available in the Russian language can be classified into two main categories: original and adapted. From a psychometric point of view, the tests can be divided into three levels: (A) tests containing complete (or almost complete) standardization data as well as the data on reliability and validity; (B) tests containing some psychometric information; (C) tests containing no psychometric data. It should be noted that the popularity of a test does not depend on its psychometric values. There are widely used tests for which there is no psychometric information at all, and there are tests with high psychometric standards, the application of which is very limited, however.
Below some of the tests that are well known to the majority of Russian psychologists are reviewed (see also Kirsheva & Ryubchikova, 1995; Krylov, 1990; Kulagin, 1984; Marischuk, 1984; Psychological tests, 1995; Ratanova & Shlayakhta, 1998; Shevandrin, 1998; Stolin & Shmelev, 1984). All Russian-language tests are referenced and reviewed psychometrically by Burlachuk and Morozov (1999).
Cognitive, Level A
‘Activity Threshold Test’ (T. L. Romanova, 1991) is used for diagnostics of the speed of decision making and readiness for action.
Cognitive, Level B
‘Spatial Thinking Test’ (I. S. Yakimanskaya, V. G. Zarkhin, H. M. Kadayas, 1991) is used for diagnostics of the level of development of spatial thinking in schoolchildren.
Cognitive, Level C
‘Vygotski—Sakharov Test’ (1927) is used for measuring thinking and concept formation abilities. The test is widely used in clinical and diagnostic studies.
Personality, Level A
‘The Questionnaire of Terminal Values’ (I. G. Senin, 1991) is used for measuring life values (prestige, social contacts, spiritual needs, etc.). ‘Individual Business Style’ (G. A. Grebenyuk, 1966) is used for diagnostics of the style of leadership. The test is used for selection of managers.
‘Monotony Resistance Personality Test’ (N. P. Fetiskin, 1991) is designed for diagnostics of personality resistance to monotony.
‘Tomsk Rigidity Questionnaire’ (G. V. Zalevsky, 1987) measures various aspects of rigidity.
‘Formal-Dynamic Personality Inventory’ (V. M. Roussalov, 1997) is used for diagnostics of formal-dynamic (temperamental) aspects of individual behavior.
Personality, Level B
‘Well-being, Activity, Mood’ (V. A. Doskin, N. A. Lavrentieva, V. B. Sharai, M. P. Mirrosh-nikova, 1973) is used for diagnostics of psycho-emotional characteristics.
‘Self-Attitude Questionnaire’ (V. V. Stolin, 1985) is used for diagnostics of the attitudes to oneself (self-respect, auto-sympathy, self-interest, etc.).
‘Achievement Need Questionnaire’ (Yu. M. Orlov, 1978) is used for measuring achievement motivation.
‘Your Well-being Questionnaire’ (O. S. Kopina, E. A. Suslova, E. V. Zaikina, 1995) is designed to assess psycho-emotional characteristics (attitudes to one’ health, stress, satisfaction of life, etc.) in different groups of population.
‘Humor Phraze Test’ (A. G. Shmelev, V. S. Boldyreva, 1982) is a projective test for assessing motivational sphere (sex, money, fashion, etc.). The test is widely used for counseling.
‘Personality Questionnaire of Bekhterev Institute’ (1983) is designed for diagnostics of the types of attitudes to illness by the patients suffering from chronic somatic disorders.
‘Mental Adaptation Disturbances Questionnaire’ (A. I. Skorik, L. S. Sverdlov, 1993) is used for preliminary diagnostics of adaptation disturbances (general physical and mental comfort, depression, neurotization, etc.).
‘Quality of Life’ (A. G. Gladkov, V. P. Zaitsev, D. M. Aronov, M. G. Sharfnadel, 1982) is used for assessing physical, mental, and social well-being of patients suffering from heart diseases. ‘The Pathocharacterological Diagnostic Questionnaire’ (A. E. Lichko, 1970). The test is widely used for diagnostics of the types of psychopathology and character accentuation in adolescents.
Personality, Level C
‘Time Schedule Test’ (S. Ya. Rubinstein, 1979) is used to measure the structure of motivation.
Cognitive, Level A
‘Heidelberger Sprachenentwicklungstest’ (Grimm & Schöler, 1991) was adapted by N. B. Mikhailova (1990). The test is used for diagnostics of speech abilities in children aged from 3 to 9.
‘Kognitiver Fähigkeitstest für 1. bis 3. Klassen’ (Heller & Geisler, 1983) was highly modified and adapted by E. I. Shcheblanova, I. S. Averina, and E. N. Zadorina (1994). The test is designed for measuring intellectual abilities of children aged 6-7. The Russian version received a new name: ‘The test of express diagnostics of intellectual abilities’.
Cognitive, Level B
‘Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale’ (Wechsler, 1958) was adapted by A. Yu. Panasyuk (1973). The test is widely used in psychological research and professional selection.
‘Intelligenz-Struktur-Test’ (Amthauer, 1973) was modified and adapted by K. M. Gurevich (Gurevitch & Akimova, 1987) to schoolchildren. The authors introduced a special concept of ‘socio-psychological norm’ (what a student of a particular social background—city, village, etc.—should know in a particular grade). The authors gave a new name to the test: ‘School test of mental development’.
‘Word Association Test’ (popularized by Yung, 1906) was adapted by V. M. Kogan and M. S. Rogovin (1961). The test is widely used for assessing different aspects of human behavior (emotions, interests, sets, psychosexual disorders, etc.).
Cognitive, Level C
‘Embedded Figure Test’ (Witkin, 1954) is used (in its original form) for determining a perceptual style. The test is widely used in research of cognitive styles (P. N. Ivanov, 1985).
‘Bourdon Test’ (Bourdon, 1895) is widely used (in its original form) for measuring the degree of concentration and stability of attention. ‘Raven Progressive Matrices’ (Penrose, Raven, 1936; modified in 1982). The test is widely used (in its original form) for measuring intelligence (S. M. Morozov, 1980).
‘Benton Test of Visual Retention’ (1952) is widely used (in its original form) in clinics as an additional method for diagnostics of brain damage (V. M. Bleikher, I. V. Kruk, 1986).
‘Sentence-Completion Techniques’ (Pane, 1928; Tendler, 1930) was translated into Russian by G. G. Rumiantseva (1969). The test is widely used in clinical-diagnostic research for measuring linguistic abilities.
Personality, Level A
‘Locus of Control Scale’ (Rotter, 1966) was adapted by E. F. Bazhin (1984) (Bazhin, Golynkina, & Etkind, 1993). The test is widely used in personality research as well as in clinical psychodiagnostics and family counseling.
‘Guilford—Zimmerman Temperament Survey’ (Guilford & Zimmerman, 1949) was adapted by V. A. Ababkov, S. M. Babin, and G. L. Isurina (1993). The test is designed for measuring different aspects of temperament in the norm and patients with neurological and psychosomatic disturbances.
‘Personal Orientation Inventory’ (Shostrom, 1963) was adapted by A. A. Rukavishnikov (1991). The test is designed for measuring the degree of self-actualization.
‘Edwards Personal Preference Schedule’ (Edwards, 1959) was adapted by T. V. Kornilova, G. V. Paramei, and S. N. Enikolopov (1995) and is used for assessing various aspects of motivation (preferences).
Personality, Level B
‘Purpose in Life Test’ (Crambo & Macholik, 1964-1991). There are several modifications and adaptations. (K. Muzdybayev, 1891; D. A. Leontiev, 1986, 1992). The test is used for assessing different aspects of the ‘meaning of life’ (sense of being, future of life and responsibility, etc.).
‘California Psychological Inventory’ (Gough, 1956) was adapted and restandardized by N. V. Tarabrina (1989). The test measures various aspects of personality.
‘Kelly Repertory Grid Technique’ (Kelly, 1955). There are several modified and adapted versions (P. N. Kozlova, 1975; V. I. Pokhilko, E. O. Fedotova, 1984; V. V. Stolin, 1983). The test is used for studying personal constructs.
‘Jenkins Activity Survey’ (1967) was adapted by A. Goshtaus, V. Yadov, and Yu. Semenov (1972-1976). The test is used for diagnostics of the type A personality.
‘Rosenzweig Picture-Frustration Study’ (1945). There are several modifications and adaptations (N. V. Tarabrina, 1971; K. D. Shafranskaya, 1976). The test is widely used in research and clinical psychodiagnostics.
‘State-Trait Anxiety Inventory’ (Spielberger, 1983) was adapted by Yu. L. Khanin in cooperation with the author of the test (1980).
‘Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test’ (Selzer, 1971) was modified and standardized by A. E. Bobrov and A. N. Shurigin (1985). The test is designed for early diagnostics of pathological dependence on alcohol.
‘Lüscher Farbwahl Test’ (Lüscher, 1948). There were several attempts at adapting the test. The psychometric data are highly controversial (N. N. Pukhovsky, 1995).
Personality, Level C
‘Sixteen Personality Factors Questionnaire’ (Cattell, Cattell, & Cattell, 1994). There were several attempts of modification and adaptation of the test (Yu. M. Zabrodin and others, 1987; Vm. Roussalov, O. V. Guseva, 1990). Only half of the factors are homogeneous on the Russian population. The test is widely used in research, professional selection and in clinical settings.
‘Eysenck Personality Inventory’ (1963). There are several attempts at adapting the test (I. N. Gilyasheva, 1963; A. G. Shmelev, Pokhilko, 1985; V. M. Roussalov, 1987). The adaptation process is not yet finished. The test is designed for measuring two personality scales: extraversion—introversion and emotional stability—neuroticism. ‘Psychotism-Extraversion—Neuroticism’ (Eys-enck & Eysenck, 1968). The test was translated into Russian by an unknown author. The test is widely used, though the psychometric data are not available (Kirsheva & Ryubchikova, 1995). ‘Bell Adjustment Inventory’ (1938). The translation was done by A. A. Rukavishnikov and M. V. Sokolov (1991). The test measures the level of difficulties of adjustment of a person to various spheres of life.
‘Life Style Index’ (Plutchek, Kellerman, Conte, 1979). The translation was done by U. B. Klubova (1991). The test is designed for diagnostics of ego defense mechanisms.
‘Wesenszug-Fragebogen’ (Littman & Schmie-schek, 1982) is widely used for diagnostics of personality accentuations. The name of the translator is unknown. The test is widely used in clinical-psychological studies (L. F. Burlachuk, V. N. Dukhnevich, 1998).
‘Crowne—Marlowe Social Desirability Scale’ (1960). The test was translated and shortened by Yu. L. Khanin (1976). It is used for diagnostics of the motivation of approval.
‘Leary Interpersonal Diagnosis’ (1957) was modified and adapted by L. N. Sobchik (1990). The test is widely used for diagnostics of interpersonal relations and personality traits that are essential in social interactions.
‘Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale’ (Taylor, 1953). The translated version by an unknown author is widely used in psychodiagnostics of sport (Khanin, 1980).
‘Psychogeometric Test’ (Dellinger, 1989) is used (in its original form) in psychological counseling. (A. A. Alekseeva, L. A. Gromova, 1991).
‘Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory’ (Hathway, MacKeanly, 1943). There were several attempts at modification and adaptation of the test (F. B. Berezin, M. P. Miroshnikov, 1967; L. N. Sobchik, 1971). The test is widely used in clinical psycho-diagnostics, professional selection, and counseling.
‘Rorschach Test’ (Rorschach, 1921). It is widely used in clinical and psychological research. Interpretation is highly controversial (I. G. Bespalko, 1983).
‘Hand Test’ (Braiklin, Piotrovsky, Wagner, 1961). Adapted by the firm Imaton. The test is used for assessing human aggressive behavior.
‘Thematic Apperception Test’ (Murray, 1943) is widely used for differential psychodiagnostics of neuroses, psychoses and marginal states (Bespalko & Giliasheva, 1983).